Charging guide: Safety when charging

Transmission of electric current has risk factors, and especially when charging both electric cars and plug-in hybrids. Good and safe charging solutions are important to keep the risk to a minimum. Risk factors are heat generation due to poor transfer capacity, arcing caused by incorrect connection and dangerous voltages due to errors in the facility. A modern electrical installation has introduced a number of safety measures to minimize these risk factors.

Charging electric vehicles with large batteries creates a particularly heavy load on an electrical system, as it often has a long-term high load that is often in the upper limit of what the course is designed for. This often applies to older existing courses. It is therefore important to take into account and follow the advice below. If you are in doubt, we recommend that you contact an electrician so that they can check the system/course to be used. A new charging point or a charging station is the best insurance that the charging of your car is carried out safely, comfortably and efficiently.

Below we have summarized some of the challenges with charging electric cars and plug-in hybrids, and how a dedicated charging point/charging station takes care of these challenges.

Challenges Solution to reduce the risk factors
  1. The electrical system used for charging must be in good condition. Charging of electric vehicles is usually done with an amperage that is close to what the system is designed for, and for long periods at a time. This is not a normal load and any weaknesses in the system could lead to overheating and the risk of fire.

  2. The power outlet used for charging electric vehicles must withstand the charging current used. This applies in particular to fixed power outlets that are used regularly for charging. An ordinary household socket can be damaged if it is used for charging over time, this applies especially if the charging current is over 10A.

  3. It is important to finish charging properly. If charging via a normal socket, charging must be terminated by removing the charging cable from the car first. This is very important. If charging is terminated by pulling out the plug from the power socket (socket) first, an arc may occur in the socket and it will be damaged.

  4. The power outlet that supplies electric vehicles must have a supply cable that runs directly from the fuse box and must not have branches or connections along the way.

  5. The power outlet used for charging electric vehicles must have proper protection. It is important that the power outlet has both a properly sized overload protection that provides an all-pole break and that it has an earth fault protection. The earth fault protection must be of type B.

  6. The charging cable that supplies the car must not be energized before it is ready for charging to avoid that voltage is applied to the car in the event of an error. It is, for example, very important that no voltage is applied to a car without it being sufficiently earthed.

  7. The electrical system that supplies electric vehicles must not be continuously loaded with more than 80%. Electric vehicles can be a tough load for an electrical system, as it draws a constant charging current over many hours. If this current is against the protection (fuse) and the cables are dimensioned for, this will generate heat and the installation will age faster.

  1. An electrician/professional will present a new course to a charging point/charging station that is designed for the load electric vehicles provide.

  2. Separate connectors have been developed for charging electric vehicles, called Type 1 and Type 2. These are sized for the load electric vehicle charging provides. Alternatively, a CEE industrial connector can be used.

  3. A charging station ensures that charging is completed correctly. If the charging cable is pulled out before charging is finished, the charging station detects it and switches off the power before an electric arc occurs.

  4. Correctly installed installation of a charging point/charging station entails direct cabling from the fuse box to the charging point/charging station.

  5. Correct installation of a charging point/charging station ensures that the charging point/charging station has the correct electrical protections that trip in the event of a fault.

  6. A charging station does not apply power to the charging cable until both car and charging station have tested and found that everything is ready so that no voltage is applied to the car if there is a fault.

  7. A qualified electrician with good knowledge of installations for charging electric vehicles will set up an electrical installation that is not loaded too hard.


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